Why is it important to us?

Ensuring access to safe water and sanitation is a human right.

Excessive and irrational water consumption can lead to impacts associated with the depletion of water resources and water shortage for industrial and economic needs, deterioration of aquatic ecosystems and decrease in the ability of water resources to naturally reproduce and purify.

Company target is to use water resources rationally with the aim to preserve them. KPO controls the use of clean water at the company by undertaking a set of measures on conservation of water resources and re-use of treated water, wherever possible.

Water consumption and disposal

Protection and rational use of water resources is an important and priority task facing both all mankind and our company. Water is the source of life and a valuable industrial raw material.

The results of our work to minimize the risks of the Company’s production impact on the use of water resources presented below.

Tab. 36. Targets in managing effluents

Our 2022 targets

Target achievement status

Actions taken in 2022

Targets for 2023

Carry out work on the development of Addendum No. 3 to the industrial water injection project


  • Addendum No. 3 to the industrial waste injection project and a report on possible impacts to it were developed and agreed by the state authorities.
  • The Work Program has been updated to the Injection Permit.

Carry out workover on the injection well RP-6 in order to increase the perforation intervals in the Triassic reservoir II.

Cleaning of check No. 32 of the storm and melt water collection system collected from uncontaminated territories of the Eco Centre.


Check cleaning 100 % completed. 2.06 tons of sludge from the storm water treatment system from uncontaminated territories was extracted and sent for processing.


Finding the optimal solutions for sustainable continuous and environmentally safe provision of KOGCF with technical water for production needs before FPSA ends

80 % completed

  • The forecast assessment of the demand for technical water was updated.
  • Production Department continued to monitor and fix leaks in existing water lines.
  • Issue an updated summary report on process water demand,
  • Start operation of Jurassic wells with post-treatment of water at reverse osmosis units,
  • Evaluate the possibilities of Aksai water treatment utilities upgrade project.

Water consumption

In 2022, the total water consumption in the Company amounted to 309,010 m3, of which 224,880 m3 was the technical water and 84,130 m3 was the potable water.

Graph 24. Water consumption in KPO, 2020 – 2022

In 2022, KPO consumed process water by 16 % less compared to 2021. Domestic water consumption was slightly higher than in 2021.

The decrease in the consumption of technical water from surface sources is due to increase in the reuse of treated wastewater. Due to a decrease in the water level in reservoir No. 1 of the Konchubai Gully, since January 2022, no water in-take for process needs at KPO facilities in order to prevent damage to the reservoir. As Konchubai gully is replenished due to spring snowmelt and rainfall, water intake will be resumed as high-water flood period is finished and the reservoir is filled. The Action Plan for Environmental Protection (EMP) for 2022 provides for work to find the optimal solution for the sustainable continuous and environmentally safe supply of KOGCF with technical water for production needs until the end of the FPSA.

Work started and continues on research and development of the framework of water consumption from alternative sources. As medium-term solution to supply technical water to KOGCF, starting from mid-January 2023, Jurassic wells are being put into operation with additional water treatment on Reversed Osmosis units. As a long-term solution, possibility to implement Aksai Wastewater Treatment Plant (WTP) upgrade project is being studied.

KPO Water Supply Sources

Till 2022 the main source of water supply for KPO production needs was a reservoir No.1 at Konchubai gully. For household needs, KPO used water from the Zharsuat water intake. Sources of water supply for pumping station domestic and process needs in Bolshoy Chagan is the Serebryakovskiy water intake, and the Atyrau pumping station is supplied from the Kigach water intake.

In 2022, the combination of prolonged dry periods and little snow floods observed in the region has led to a critical decrease in the water level in pond № 1. In this regard, during 2022, KPO carried out a number of activities allowing optimization of technical water consumption and reuse of treated wastewater, rainwater, and melt water. Additionally, after conducting experimental filtration studies at wells, groundwater from wells was sent to operational facilities for reusing for technical needs.

Also, the sources of water supply are the ground water from Akchagyl underground reservoir, well. No. W-4, W-9 inside KOGCF as per the Permission for Special Water Use issued by the Zhaiyk-Caspian Basin Inspectorate under No. KZ92VTE00093596 Series Kas. Zhaiyk (groundwater) dated 08.02.2022 and water of technical quality from reservoir No. 2 on Konchubai gully according to an agreement with Industrial Construction Services KAZ LLP. Water intake from other sources is ensured through contracts with water suppliers.

In 2022, the potable water was used for domestic needs of KPO facilities. By exception, at the Bolshoi Chagan Pumping Station the potable water has been supplied by the RSE ‘KazVodKhoz’ WQO Branch, and due to absence of alternative sources of water supply, has been used to fill the fire water tanks for fire safety purposes.

Table 37 shows KPO water consumption breakdown by source.

Tab. 37. KPO water consumption in 2020 – 2022 broken down by source, m3




Water quality





Zharsuat water intake facility (household needs)

Karachaganak field (KOGCF)

groundwater, potable





Konchubay gully, Pond #1

Karachaganak field (KOGCF)

surface water, technical





Ground waters from Akchagyl underground reservoir, Well №W-4, W-9

Karachaganak field (KOGCF)

ground water, technical



Technical quality water from Pond #2


surface water, technical



Reuse for process needs of KOGCF rain waters and produced waters from wells after well testing

Karachaganak field (KOGCF)




Serebryakovskiy water intake facility

Bolshoi Chagan OPS

groundwater, potable





for household needs







for production needs







Kigach water intake facility

Atyrau OPS

surface water, technical





for household needs







for production needs






Note: water consumption is metered using meters with measurements entered in the logbooks and further in the KPO water consumption metering database.

Treated wastewater discharges

KPO uses special man-made facilities for collecting treated domestic and industrial wastewater and storm runoffs. These facilities exclude a possibility of contaminants soaking into the soil and groundwater and allow collecting the treated wastewater for their re-use for technical needs, thereby reducing the fresh water intake. The types of wastewater collection facilities were shown in the 2018 Sustainability Report (Tab. 40, p. 105).

Formation water produced with hydrocarbons and process wastewater are treated and injected into the deep-lying formations of the Karachaganak Field Subsurface Wastewater Disposal Polygons № 1 and № 2. Wastewater injection is the international practice of disposing wastewater, avoiding the formation of salt-containing waste on the surface during the treatment. Due to the reliable water shutoff and soil properties, which are ideal for the injection of wastewater, the migration of wastewater into upper aquifers is ruled out.

According to the RoQ legislation, the volume of discharged wastewater and amount of discharged contaminants are estimated and justified in the Company project documentation and regulated by special permits.

Wastewater generated as a result of the KPO economic and production activities is not discharged into the natural water bodies.

Table 38 shows the KPO discharge volumes in 2020–2022 by wastewater types and receiving facilities.

Tab. 38. Total discharge volume and contaminants by wastewater type and receiving facility, 2020–2022, m3

Receiving facility

Type of wastewater




Discharge volumes, m3

Amount of contaminants, tonnes

Discharge volumes, m3

Amount of contaminants, tonnes

Discharge volumes, m3

Amount of contaminants, tonnes

Holding ponds

Treated domestic wastewater







Subsurface Waste Water Disposal Polygons

Industrial wastewater, process and produced wastewater







Terrain of Bolshoi Chagan OPS and Atyrau Terminal OPS

Rainfall and snow melt wastewater







Total discharge







Note: the volume of water discharge is metered using meters with data entered in the logbooks and further in the KPO water consumption metering database. The amount of contaminants discharged is determined by calculation as the product of the actual concentration of the contaminant before the discharge and the actual volume discharged.

Comparing to 2021, the volume of wastewater discharged by Company in 2022 increased by 5.34 %. This total volume includes 2022 injected industrial wastewater volumes which reduced by 2.13 % comparing to 2021. The decrease in industrial wastewater in 2022 was due to Turnaround, and also due to suspension of treated wastewater discharge into holding ponds to collect wastewater for re-use since 2022. The types of treated wastewater and contaminants were presented in the 2017 Sustainability Report (p. 93).

In 2022, the discharge of contaminants amounted to 60,730 tonnes (which was 2.9 % more compared to 2021 – 58,981 tonnes). Of them, 60,729.3 tonnes were discharged within the maximum permissible discharge (MPD) limits, while the excess discharge amounted to 0.481 tonnes. Slightly excessive discharge of contaminants in domestic wastewater to the holding ponds observed, in particular excess in ammonium nitrogen, nitrate nitrogen and phosphates. In accordance with the requirements of the RoQ tax legislation, the Company made necessary payments for the generated contaminants discharges.

In general, wastewater injection has no effect on the environmental components such as soil, flora and fauna, as wastewater is injected into effectively isolated deep horizons with high-mineralized groundwater that is not used for domestic and potable, balneological, process needs, irrigation and farming.

Reuse of treated and other wastewater

In order to reduce the intake of natural technical water, KPO uses treated domestic, industrial and rainwater and storm wastewater for the Field's technical needs, for such types of activities as drilling, preparation of drilling fluids, irrigation of forest plantations, dust suppression on roads and construction sites, and filling fire water tanks.

The wastewater is re-used at the Company facilities in line with the 2021–2025 Operating Procedure.

In 2022, the Company reused 75,452 m3 of treated wastewater for technical needs. In comparison with 2021, reuse has doubled, the main volume was used for the process needs of the Field's operational facilities. Table 39 shows the activities that utilize treated wastewater and water.

Tab. 39. Reuse of treated wastewater and groundwater in 2020 – 2022, m3





The total volume of re-used treated wastewater, including:




Technical needs of KOGCF operational facilities




For drilling and drilling mud preparation




Irrigation, hydro tests, and replenishing of fire tanks




Dust suppression




Note: the volume of reused water is measured indirectly in m3 (motor hours, tank truck volume, number of trips, pumping capacity, etc.) with the completion of a control ticket and data entered in the logbook.

Industrial wastewater management 

Managing the produced and industrial effluent water is one of the main challenges faced by KPO in the Karachaganak Field.

KPO’s wastewater management strategy consists of implementation of a portfolio of interconnected projects aimed at removal of production restrictions in terms of produced water handling as well as ensuring personnel safety, asset integrity and environmental compliance.

In 2022, Addendum No. 3 to the current industrial Waste Water Disposal project was developed in terms of adjusting design parameters and a report on possible impacts was drawn up, which were agreed by the Department of the Industrial Safety Committee and received a positive conclusion from the Committee for Environmental Regulation and Control. The basis for this work was a geological report, which was approved by State Commission for Subsurface Expertise. The correction of the WWD project is the final stage of the complex geological exploration carried out earlier and aimed at additional study of the geological and hydrogeological conditions of Triassic reservoirs III and II in the area of Waste Water Disposal Polygon No. 2 in order to prove the possibility of accepting the forecasted volumes till the end of the FPSA.

Addendum No. 3 to the Wastewater injection project reflects an increase in wastewater injection volume from 2023 until the end of FPSA (2037) to 1,100 thousand m3/year, as well as the implementation of technical measures to increase the potential of the injection well stock through additional perforation of target and prospective injection intervals and hydraulic fracturing.

The planned sequence of these works is as follows:

  • in 2023, a workover is planned in the RP-6 well in order to increase the perforation intervals in Reservoir II;
  • in 2024, a workover is scheduled in the RP-7 well in order to increase the perforation intervals in Reservoir II.

In accordance with the requirements of the legislation of the RoQ in the field of environmental protection, in 2024 the Company plans to conduct a post-project analysis of design solutions with subsequent preparation of a report for state regulatory authorities.

In 2021, two planned projects were completed: workover of the second wastewater injection well for more effective utilization of wastewater and commission of a modified gas sweetening unit in order to automate a causterization process.

In 2022, the project of upgrade of a caustic neutralisation unit was ongoing with expected start-up date in 2024.

During 2022 turnaround replacement of induced gas flotation vessels and a tilted plate separator has been completed for treating process effluents from oil. The vessels’ replacement ensures asset integrity and higher capacity of facilities and consequently provide better oil and water separation, which positively affects the operation of the entire wastewater treatment system before disposal into deep horizons.

To support the plan to increase the scope of injected water in Polygon 2, the project of upgrade of sand and guard filters is currently ongoing with anticipated start-up date in 2024.

Tab. 40. Industrial wastewater management projects, started in 2022


Business driver


Upgrade of a caustic neutralisation unit

Safe operations

Implementation of the project will provide an improvement of caustic neutralization process. By means of process automation the risks for personnel exposure to toxic agents will be reduced.

Upgrade of sand and guard filters

Production maintenance

Upgrade of sand and guard filters will allow to achieve KPC water treatment capacity to 115 m3/d.